Article Description : This article titled ‘Machining Suppliers- Global Sourcing considerations’ explains the process and its types. A professional must be well aware of the process before supplier sourcing.
Machining process is a metal-working operation in which raw metals are cut to desired shapes to serve industrial requirements. It is a subtraction process that involves removal of unwanted metal parts (known as ‘chips’) using different techniques. Now days the conventional processes are upgrading, especially for high production runs.
A material can be brought to a desired shape through material addition or material removal. In terms of industrial processes, the controlled addition of metals to form end-products with distinct requirements. This process is known as Additive Manufacturing. Similarly, the process in which an end-product is obtained through material removal is known as Subtractive Manufacturing.
In order to perform these operations, a machinist, who performs these operations uses machining tools. These tools can be hand tools or machine tools. These operations are carried out in a workroom called Machine Shop.
There are several machining operations that involve tools like lathes, cutting tools, presses and machines. But with growth in technology, the machining processes started to involve electro chemical machining, photo chemical and ultra sonic machining.
A few machining operations in the metalworking industry are mentioned below :
Drilling operation is a process in which a sharp driller cuts open a work metal to form holes of specific diameters. Drilling machines are also applied in operations like tapping, reaming, spot facing, etc.
Types of Drilling machines :
(a). Portable Drilling machine
(b). Automatic drilling machine
(c). Sensitive or Bench Drill
(d). Horizontal drilling machine
(e). Single spindle drilling machine
(f). Multiple spindle drilling machine
(g). Radial drilling machine
(h). Gang drilling machine
(i). Turret type drilling machine
(j). Deep hole drilling machine
This process involves enlargement of holes that already exists in a work metal. Boring ensures that the surface finish of the holes is smooth and accurate.
Types of Boring Machines :
A. Horizontal Boring Machines :
(a). Table type horizontal boring machine
(b). Planer type horizontal boring machine
(c). Floor type horizontal boring machine
(d). Multiple spindle horizontal boring machine
B. Vertical Boring machines
C. Jig Boring Machines
D. Precision Boring Machines
Planing is similar to shaping. This process involves repetitive up and down motion of the work-metal along the surface of a stationary cutting tool. This enhance flatness and smoothness of the work-metal.
Types of Planers:
(a). Double housing Planar
(b). Edge or plate planar
(c). Open side planar
(d). Pit type planar
(e). Divide type planar
(f). Universal planar
It is the process of removal of unwanted metal parts using sharp tools. Thereby, the work metal is brought to desired shape.
This is a hole widening process in a metal. In this process, the existing holes are precisely shaped and smoothed according to the requirement.
The process in which a toothed tool removes excessive metal parts is known as Broaching. It is classified into linear broaching and rotary broaching.
It is the usage of a rotary cutting tool along the work-metal surface to bring it to the desired shape. Recently lot of improvement with the milling machines which makes the operation hi-tech
Types of milling machines :
A. Column and knee type milling machine
(a). Hand milling machine
(b). Plain or horizontal milling machine
(c). Vertical milling machine
(d). Universal milling machine
B. Manufacturing type or fixed bed type milling machine
(a). Simplex milling machine
(b). Duplex milling machine
(c). Triplex milling machine
3) Planar type milling machine
4) Special type milling machine
(a). Rotary table milling machine
(b). Drum milling machine
(c). Profile milling machine
(d). Planetary milling machine
(e). CNC milling machine
This is a process which cuts a work-metal to form gears.
This is a frictional or abrasive method in which a rotating wheel/belt shapes the work-metal.
It is a lathe turning operation. In this process, a specific diameter of the outer surface is removed in a cylindrical work-metal.
It is a finishing process that uses abrasive techniques using a stone surface. The work-metal is repeatedly moved along the stone to shape its surface precisely.
This process involves cutting of work-metal using a thin metal blade.
It is the usage of machines or hands to rub along each other to achieve smoother and flatter metal surface.
Ultrasonic machining :
This method is particularly used for hard metals. It involves a vibrating tool that causes ultrasonic frequency generation. These frequencies are used to remove the unwanted metal parts.
Abrasive jet process:
This technique involves cutting of metals using high velocity gas/ water along the surface of the metal.
It is a process in which etching of metal surfaces is induced using chemicals to subtract the excessive metal regions.
Electro chemical process:
This process involves Electricity and ionic processes for cutting metals. A high current is passed along a desired path between the electrolyte and the metal region. This method eliminates traditional disadvantage like tool-wear.
Torch cutting :
This process uses oxy acetylene torch that heats the metal surface and uses excessive oxygen to cut the metal part.
The processes that involves heat for cutting metals is known as Burning machining. It includes welding processes as well. Laser and Plasma techniques are good examples of this technique.
The process of eroding a metal surface using air/ gas is known as Erosion. Water jet machining uses high velocity water stream to cut the metal surface through erosion. Whereas, Electric Discharge uses electric current to erode the work-metal surfaces.
(Computer Numerical control) cnc process:
This high speed process uses software program coding to set equipment/ machines in right parameters to cut metals.
This process is used for cutting very small machined parts. It is also a fabrication technique used for machined components. Though several processes were developed, the choice of the process always depend on the desired geometry of the material. A number of tools and equipment are designed for these processes.
Fortunately, the development of the techniques is still ongoing to produce utmost results in metal manufacturing and fabrication processes. This provides a great scope for experts to reach high quality productions thereby boosting machining supplier sourcing. For Machining supplier sourcing , Kindly click here
Some Important Machining Inventions :
1250 – Lathe of pole
1550 – Planing machine
1751 – Metal frame usage for Machine turning
1774 – Boring machine
1800 – First lathe made entirely of metal for tapping screws
1880 – Grinding machine for small parts
Around 1800 – First screw-cutting lathe
1840 – High pressure hydraulic press.
1842 – the first automatic lathe
1846 – precise drilling machine
1860 – First cylindrical grinding machine
1860 – Helical Drill
1861 – First universal milling machine
1862 – First universal milling machine
1887 – Grinding machine for large parts
1897 – Bending lathe
1940s – CNC precision machines
1950s and 1960s – Digital Signal Processing
1970s – Application of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC)
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