Forging Suppliers- Global Sourcing considerations

Article Description : This article titled ‘Forging Suppliers- Global Sourcing considerations’ explains the forging process and its types that a professional must know before he/ she decides to involve in forging supplier sourcing.

Forging is a metalworking process in which compressive forces are applied on a metal to deform it into desired shape. A wide range of parts can be produced using this method of Metal forming. In order to produce unique metal parts with customized size/ shape/ materials, this method is highly preferred.

In this process, the processes are classified based on their metal temperature. In general, the metal temperature is compared to its re-crystallization temperature to estimate its type.

If the temperature

  • is tested and identified above its re-crystallization temperatures, the metal is classified under hot forging.
  • is estimated between its re-crystallization temperature and 30% of the re-crystallization, the process is classified under warm forging.
  • is estimated below 30% of the re-crystallization temperature, the process is classified under cold forging.
  • In addition to this, the strengthening of a material through application of heat aftermath cold forging is known as Tempering.

    Drop forging:
    This technique comprises a giant hammer striking a work piece several times repeatedly in order to bring it to the shape of the die used in this process. This process deforms only the surface of the metal. This process is classified into 2 types:

  • Open-die technique
  • Closed-die technique/ Impression-die technique
  • I. Open die forging:
    During this process, the die does not completely enclose the workpiece. While hammered, the workpiece is deformed into the shape of the die along with excessive metal let out of the die region. These residue metals are removed through further processing.

    The successive processes carried out after surface deformation are as follows:

    Cogging:
    Once a drop forging is complete, it is essential to bring the metal to its desired shape as per the requirement. In order to do so, deformation processes are carried out. The hammers strike along the entire length of a metal bar which extends the length thereby reducing the cross section. This process is known as Cogging.

    Edging:
    The process in which the deformations are achieved using a concave die is known as Edging.

    Fullering:
    Similar to the Edging technique, fullering is a process in which the deformations are achieved using a convex die is known as Fullering.

    II. Closed die forging/ Impression-die forging:
    As the name indicates, this process is performed to bring out calculated or per-designed impressions on the metal surface. The die used in this process looks like a mold. The hammer is allowed to strike the metal surface repeatedly. This causes the metal to flow along the die cavities causing residue metal to be pushed out of the die region. This residue formed after hammering is known as Flash.

    Press Forging:
    This process is similar to drop forging. It is carried out in a forging press where a hammer strikes the metal surface. But, the strikes on the metal are slow when compared to the latter. In the latter method, only the surface of the metal is deformed. Further processes like cogging and edging are performed to deform the complete metal (in and out). Whereas in this method, no secondary processes are involved. The complete metal is reshaped to its required shape in this process without any application of secondary deformation techniques.

    Upset Forging:
    This technique is performed using high-speed machines. During this process, the metal’s length is reduced, and the diameter or cross-sectional region is expanded by means of compression.

    Automatic Hot Forging:
    A modernized technique where deformation of metals is automated. During this process, metal bars are fed into a machine. The metal bars are deformed inside the machine by means of hot forging. On process completion, the output is collected as forged metals.

    Roll forging:
    During roll forging process, the hot metal bars are fed into cylindrical or semi-cylindrical grooved rolls. The hot metal bars acquire the shape of the grooves and are let out if the rolls in the form of forged metal products. The process of inserting the metal bars is repeated several times (if required) until the bar reaches the desired shape.

    Several secondary operations are carried out after initial reshaping of a metal in order to remove excess/ residue metal. This expands the cost of production on the other hand. To minimize time and cost, this precision forging technique was developed.

    Induction forging:
    As the name indicates, the technique involves heating. The other techniques can be combined with this heating technique at the required stages to achieve reshaping of metals to desired shapes.

    Multi-directional forging:
    The process carried out at different directions at the same time on a single work piece is known as Multi-directional technique. The direction of the ram is changed during the process by means of wedges.

    Isothermal technique:
    This process involves deformation of a metal is carried out by heating the metal and the die at similar temperatures.

    We believe that these basics about the process will help you in Forging supplier sourcing!

    If you are considering about supplier discovery /supplier scouting for procurement of this products and services related to this metalworking process, please visit our Global Supplier Network for accessing exclusive supplier information (Conditions apply) and contacting Suppliers instantly

    Resources:
    Wikipedia

    Ferralloy

    Forging Industry Association

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